Week 8 signature assignment final paper attempt | Critical Reasoning

Feedback from professor that needs to be fixed From rough draft uploaded below 

Your paper is a great start to your final draft. You are on the right track. You have some clear information in your paper about the history of police brutality and the idea of when it started. I would like to see the claim/argument made about the action of police brutality, not the history of when it started. This is not a strong claim or one that produces the critical reasoning I would like to see in this paper. After you have developed that, then produce the counterargument on the opposite side of the claim.  The inclusion of historical data and information can be used to support either side and you can demonstrate the subjective interpretations that are being used on each side around the topic.  The goal is to choose one side of the argument and then explain all of the questions in relation to that argument. 

Many of components you were missing included the research and data surrounding the issue. You can also look at the percentages of people on each side, states data, historical data of reported cases. It looked like all of the cases you mentioned were against African Americans. This is alright, if you want to stick to that population. Just be clear that it is not all cases and forms of police brutality. Be analytical and assess the argument, not just the topic. 

Please read through my comments so you know what needs to change,what is missing, and what may need some clarification. It is especially important to review each of the questions for the final paper and make sure that after you state the claim/argument regarding guns, that you then answer according to that statement.

what the guide lines are below.

The goal of this paper is to construct a fair-minded, unbiased, analytical analysis of a topic in a comprehensive essay.

  • This is not an opinion piece or a persuasive essaythat simply aims to prove or reinforce what you already believe. This would be confirmation bias, and bias must be avoided in this project.
  • This project needs to avoid harsh rhetoric or language that is harmful and hurtful in nature. The point is to be objective and unemotional in your approach.
  • This essay should be written in a fair, academic, respectful, and analytical manner regardless of any of your opinions, feelings, or preconceived notions about the topic.
  • Both sides of your topic must be treated with equal attention, both in terms of the number and quality of sources and in the depth and breadth of their presentation in your essay. Both sides should be addressed in the same number of paragraphs in roughly equivalent detail, and should be supported by the same number of quality sources.
  • You must identify and define rhetorical devices and logical fallacies on both sides of the argument. Be sure you indicate which specific rhetorical device and fallacy you have found, and there is evidence in your sources of these course concepts in practice that is cited in your paper.
  • You will present statements and claims for analyzing both sides of the topic. Only then should you state you own conclusion as an objective, critical thinker given the information presented.

Essay Format: Your essay must be 5–7 pages (1600–1900 words) in length. The abstract, title page, and reference list do not count in the page or word count. The essay must have the following elements:

  • Times New Roman
  • 12-point
  • Double-spaced
  • 1-inch margins
  • Proper Level I and Level II APA section headings for all major sections of the essay
  • All other applicable APA formatting

Required Elements:

  • A properly formatted APA title page
  • A properly formatted APA abstract
  • Body of the paper 
    • Introduction: Identify the issue. Provide the necessary background and/or important recent developments. Define key terms and concepts. Engage the reader and explain the broader significance of the issue.
    • Arguments and Counterarguments: Summarize the best arguments on both sides of the issue. Include relevant research from credible sources used to support each conclusion. Devote at least one paragraph to each side.
    • Evaluation of Critical Thinking: Assess the strength of the arguments and the quality of thinking surrounding this issue. 
      • Identify weaknesses in critical thinking such as fallacies, rhetorical devices, vague language, and cognitive biases. Provide specific examples of how these weaknesses appear in arguments you encountered, using terminology and definitions from the course. Be specific! Present evidence from your sources that show these fallacies/biases being used.
      • Evaluate the quality of scientific and anecdotal evidence using the standards ofinductive and deductive reasoningdescribed in the course. Consider the quality of causal relationship, analogies, generalizations, and/or moral reasoning.
    • Conclusion: Analyze the totality of research and offer a critical thinker’s response to the issue. Identify your own position and experience with the issue and explain how your thinking of the subject has evolved as a result of your analysis. Your conclusion does not have to be absolute, but it should not be equivocal. If both sides have good arguments, which is better, even if only slightly better, and what is the argument that tips the scales in the sides’ favor? Why does that point tip the scales?
  • A properly formatted APA reference list 
    • Sources should appear in alphabetical order according to the last name of the first author listed on the source.
    • If there is no author(s), then the source should be cited by title or organization.

Sources and Research Sources: You must use five scholarly or academic sources and all research should be published within the last five years. Sources not scholarly or academic in nature may affect your grade. It is highly recommended that most of your research be conducted via the WCU Library.

Eligible sources listed best-to-worst: 

  • Peer-reviewed journal articles 
    • Peer review is the process that allows scientists to trust the reliability of published journal articles. The only way to tell if a journal article has been peer reviewed is to look for information about the journal, normally on the publisher’s website. Most databases do not indicate if an article is peer reviewed or not.
    • The WCU library contains many of peer-reviewed sources. This is going to be the most desired type of evidence to use for any paper at WCU.
  • Scholarly research articles 
    • Research articles (original research articles, primary research articles, or case studies) are your standard scientific articles. Most often published in peer-reviewed journals, primary research articles report on the findings of a scientist’s work.
    • They almost always include a description of how the research was conducted and what the results mean. This is also a highly desirable type of research to use for your papers.
  • Government and state reports 
    • Many government agencies like the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute of Mental Health (NIHM), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) may have studies and statistics that may be useful for your topic. However, these sources are usually informational reports in nature, and therefore they rarely dig into the critical arguments used by the sides of a topic.
    • Though usually credible and reliable source, government reports should generally be used as supplemental, secondary sources to support or rebut academic sources. They should not be the main sources of your argument.
  • Other articles or sources 
    • When this general term is used for an assignment, get clarification from your instructor about the source requirements. These are articles or sources that have been well researched and include a lot of citations. When you assess these resources, make sure that they are appropriate to use as evidence because they may contain bias. You should look at the sources these articles are using, determine if they are legitimate, reputable, and credible, and then make a judgment call.
    • These types of articles are the least desirable type of articles from the list of acceptable types to use (depending on each course’s expectations). 
      • Review articles
      • Editorials, opinion, commentary, and perspectives
      • Trade publication articles
      • Technical reports
      • Documentaries
      • Interviews or TED talks

Sources that may not be used on this essay include the following: 

  • Wikipedia and information from freelance websites (check with your professor before using these sources)
  • Information from general or reference sources such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, general information websites, or other reference works online or in print. Check with your teacher regarding textbooks from other courses or other sources if you are not sure.
  • Articles from publications or magazines that lack research to back up their claims
  • Religious texts of any kind
  • Obviously or highly biased sources that contain no credible or reputable support

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