Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 1 of 16 This is a practice exam from an exam from an earlier year. It does not cover exactly the same material as that covered this year so some information may seem unfamiliar. Points and wording for the formats for each section may be slightly different on the actual exam. EOSC 315 PRACTICE EXAM This exam has 16 pages. You have 3 hours. Total 100 marks. Closed book (no notes). Student Name:_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Signature:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Student Number:___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 2 of 16 Part I: Multiple Choice (40 x 1 pts =40 pts. total) Write the best answer (a – e) on the scantron sheet. There is only one best answer to each question. 1 A typical coral reef community has very high productivity because __________. a) nutrient uptake and release are tightly coupled b) reefs are located close to land c) there are two distinct plankton blooms per year, spring and fall blooms d) it is part of the highly productive tropical oceans e) there are lots of corals within a reef 2 All the following are true with respect to the properties of light in seawater EXCEPT_________. a) The photic zone is deeper in the open ocean than in most coastal regions. b) Increased plankton biomass and sediment concentrations will change the color of the surface water towards green and or yellow. c) The ocean appears blue because the blue wavelength is reflected off the oceans before it can penetrate below the surface. d) Red does not penetrate below the ocean’s surface very deeply. e) The color of tropical oceans including coral reefs tends to be blue due to the lack of plankton biomass in the water. 3 Which of the following is true about diatoms? a) They are made of silica shells b) They on average get smaller as they go through asexual reproduction. c) Diatoms can actively maintain their position in the water column. d) They are eukaryotic and single celled. e) All of the above are true. 4 Which of the following are not all photosynthetic? a) Dinoflagellates b) Coccolithophores c) Red Algae d) Cyanobacteria e) Kelp 5 Which of the following does NOT apply to zooplankton? a) Some examples are single celled b) Some examples are multicellular c) The carnivores are important primary consumers in most food webs. d) Their numbers can affect rates of primary productivity. e) They can migrate up and down the water column daily and yearly. 6 Which of the following is true about Chondrichthyes? a) They have gill covers to decrease their drag in the water b) Many are herbivorous c) They have swim bladders for buoyancy control d) They are made up of cartilage, making them negatively buoyant. e) All fertilization is external. Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 3 of 16 7 Infauna organisms inhabiting sandy shore environments must cope with _____________ and tend to be ______________ due to the food availability in their specific ecosystem. a) High waves; hard shelled b) Low oxygen; detritivores c) High salinity; good hunters d) a non-changing environment; poisonous e) high UV rays; photosynthetic 8 Coral reef ecosystems in the tropics rely heavily on _______________ between _______________ and _______________ to survive and thrive. a) Predation; sharks; reef fish b) Parasitism; crown of thorns seastar; soft corals c) Heterotrophy; zooplankton; all types of corals d) Symbiosis; dinoflagellates; hard corals e) Coral poison; hard coral; soft corals 9 Two flagella and a cell wall made of cellulose are characteristic of____________. a) Diatoms b) Dinoflagellates c) Cyanobacteria d) Coccolithophores e) Copepods 10 Which of the following is a ‘flowering plant’? a) Eelgrass b) Kelp c) Zooxanthellae d) Diatoms e) All of the above 11 The term ‘KELP’ refers to a sub-group of _____________. a) Red algae b) Brown algae c) Green algae d) Eel grass e) Blue-green algae 12 An example of a jawless fish is the ______________. a) Hagfish b) Shark c) Ray d) Flounder e) Parrot fish Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 4 of 16 13 Which of the following correctly links the types of organism with its habitat? a) Benthic organisms swim b) Planktonic organisms live on the ocean bottom c) Nektonic organisms drift in the water d) Benthic organisms drift in water e) Nektonic organisms swim 14 Biological productivity in tropical regions tends to be limited by __________. a) The mixed layer b) Silica concentrations c) Temperature d) Light e) Phosphorous 15 Which of the following is TRUE about the Redfield ratio? a) Nitrogen and phosphorous are equally limiting. b) Carbon is the most used nutrient. c) Zooplankton nutrient requirements are different from the Redfield ratio. d) The Redfield ratio suggests phosphorous is usually limiting. e) The Redfield ratio link light and light requirements for most phytoplankton. 16 Asexual reproduction in diatoms usually results in ______. a) same-sized progeny b) fertilized eggs c) one larger and one smaller cell d) naked offspring e) diatoms do not reproduce asexually 17 Organisms in the upper middle tide zone of the rocky intertidal generally do NOT need to adapt to one of the following: a) dessication b) low oxygen c) high light d) cataclysmic events e) predation 18 Which of the following do NOT pertain to Prokaryotes in the ocean? a) Important class of phytoplankton b) Most important type of decomposer c) Key group in coral reef symbiosis d) Chemoautotroph in Riftia e) Can live in areas of high or no oxygen depending on the species Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 5 of 16 19 In a whale fall, the presence of anaerobic bacteria in large quantities indicates _____________________? a) That the whale only recently settled on the ocean bottom. b) Whale tissue is being actively consumed c) The presence of hagfish d) The whale has reached the sulfophilic stage. e) That food is available for juvenile clams 20 Which of the following is NOT true about mesopelagic fish? a) They are usually small in size b) They can have moderately strong muscles c) They can employ counter illumination d) They have small eyes e) Some migrate into the epipelagic to feed 21 Which of the following is NOT an attribute of a living thing? a) The ability to obtain and utilize energy for work b) The ability to perpetuate indefinitely. c) Must be able to regulate its internal environment in response to the external environment. d) Must be made up of organic molecules. e) All the above are attributes of living things. 22 Which of the following is NOT evidence the chloroplast of most eukaryotes comes from a cyanobacteria ancestor. a) Chlorophyll a is present in all plants b) Chloroplasts have similar DNA to cyanobacteria c) The cell membranes of chloroplasts are similar to cyanobacteria d) Chloroplasts are the same shape as cyanobacteria e) Photosynthesis is similar for most primary producers 23 Which of the following is NOT a true statement when comparing and contrasting eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. a) You find chlorophyll in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic autotrophs. b) Prokaryotes are single celled and eukaryotes are multicellular. c) Prokaryotes are generally classified as picoplankton while eukaryotes can be found in the microplankton. d) You can find bacterial DNA inside all eukaryotes. e) Prokaryotic DNA is circular while eukaryotic DNA is found within the nucleus. 24 Which of the following does NOT explain why there is roughly fifty times more carbon dioxide in the oceans than in the atmosphere? a) Gases are more soluble in colder water than warmer water. b) Carbon dioxide converts to bicarbonate in seawater which has higher dissolution in seawater than carbon dioxide. c) Autotrophic processes convert carbon dioxide into organic carbon which cannot dissolve back into the atmosphere. d) Much of the carbon dioxide eventually sinks to the sea floor as fecal pellets. e) Organic carbon is more dense in seawater than in the atmosphere. 25 Which of the following CANNOT be considered an important ecological role of zooplankton. Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 6 of 16 a) They keep organic matter from sinking below the epipelagic b) They bloom at the same time as diatoms with equal biomass therefore keeping diatom blooms in check. c) They help in the transfer of carbon from small microscopic organisms to larger organisms. d) Larger primary consumer zooplankton allow food webs to involve less organisms. e) Zooplankton make up the most numerous multicellular organisms on earth. 26 In temperate regions, __________. a) The strong summer thermocline controls primary productivity b) Primary productivity is limited by CO2, nutrients, and light c) Land- and human-based nutrient sources determine the strength and duration of spring blooms d) Light limitation drives both spring and fall phytoplankton blooms e) Fall blooms occur when the strengthening thermocline prevents nutrients from sinking to deeper water 27 Which zooplankton would be most affected by increased acidity in the oceans due to Ocean Acidification? a) Dinoflagellates b) Diatoms c) Coccolithophores d) Foraminiferans e) Radiolarians 28 The following marine organisms may be broadly classified as nekton: a) Dolphin, Orca, sea star b) Salmon, seal, seagull c) Oyster, clam, abalone d) Cod, flounder, halibut e) Radiolarian, diatom, dinoflagellate 29 A stable, long-established community is known as: a) A habitat b) A climax community c) A succession d) A niche e) None of the above 30 In photosynthesis, the energy of sunlight is ultimately stored in a) Carbon dioxide molecules. b) Carbohydrates. c) Oxygen molecules. d) Water molecules e) Nitrate Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 7 of 16 31 The zone of lighted ocean in which marine autotrophs receive more energy than they use to stay alive is called ___________? a) The euphotic zone. b) The aphotic zone. c) The abyssal zone. d) The mesopelagic zone. e) The benthic zone. 32 Tuna are members of this group a) Mammalia b) Chondrichthyes c) Osteichthyes d) Agnatha e) none of the above 33 The zooxanthellae in coral reefs _________________. a) Provide carbon dioxide and phosphates for the coral polyps. b) Feed on the tissues of the coral polyps and are dangerous parasites. c) Hinder calcium carbonate formation of their hosts. d) Provide additional nourishment and oxygen to the coral polyps. e) All of these. 34 The biological pump is loosely defined as: a) The cycle of nitrogen from the surface waters to the deep and back to the surface. b) The conversion of CO2 into calcium carbonate and its effects on the pH of the ocean. c) The conversion of surface CO2 into POC that becomes buried in the sediment. d) The effects of chemosynthesis on the carbon cycle. e) The transfer of detritus from the productive rocky intertidal to the sandy shore ecosystems. 35 What is generally the most important multicellular primary producer in a sandy bottom community? a) Diatoms b) Kelp c) Cyanobacteria d) Eelgrass e) Mangrove trees 36 Which location in the world’s oceans has the strongest, most stable yearly thermocline? a) North Pacific b) Southern Ocean c) North Atlantic d) Equator e) Deep sea Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 8 of 16 37 Which of the following is most likely for water of the mixed layer? a) Low density, high temperature, low salinity b) High density, high temperature, low salinity c) High density, high temperature, low salinity d) Low density, low temperature, high salinity e) Low density, low temperature, low salinity 38 The Miller-Urey experiment established that _________________. a) Oxygen could be produced b) The formation of DNA was possible c) Amino acids could be formed abiotically d) High pressure was necessary for photosynthesis e) Life probably began in the deep ocean 39 Which of the following is true about oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans? a) Oxygen was the result of the Iron Catastrophe b) Oxygen appeared primarily due to the evolution of photosynthesis c) Oxygen is necessary for primary production d) Oxygen was produced deep in the Earth’s core e) Oxygen is a highly reactive molecule that disappears quickly at the surface of the ocean 40 Hawaiian Honeycreepers are an excellent example of natural selection because: a) They show high diversity due to the preponderance of different niches in the Hawaiian Islands. b) They are capable of interbreeding easily between different species. c) They have different ancestors but have all evolved to look the same due to inhabiting similar niches. d) All the different types of Honeycreepers are evolving to a single, superior species e) Their DNA varies immensely between Honeycreeper species. Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 9 of 16 Part II: Short Answer (5 x 6 pts =30 pts total) Define or respond to the FIVE (5) following questions/statements. Answers should be kept to a half a page maximum per question. Point form is OK 1. Give three possible reasons as to why heterotrophic bacteria biomass varies in the ocean. 2. What is the difference between Sulfur bacteria, which live in hydrothermal vents, and those, which are found deeper in the sandy intertidal? Please use equations. 3. Define ‘mixed layer’ and how its variation affects the phytoplankton community. 4. What is a HAB? Name two types of HAB. 5. What is the final possible amount of calories found in the sea-otter community if there is 1,000,000 total calories of primary producer (show trophic levels)? Assume the trophic efficiency of the open ocean. Write down the organisms and their trophic levels. Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 10 of 16 Part II: Short Answers (con’t) Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 11 of 16 Part II: Short Answers (con’t) Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 12 of 16 Part II: Short Answers (con’t) Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 13 of 16 Part III: Long Answers (2 x 15 pts =30 pts total) Answer (1 page maximum per answer) any TWO (2) of the following questions (please use diagrams if necessary). Point form is OK. You will only be graded for the first two if you decide to do more. 1. In the middle intertidal, a patch of mussels is scraped off due to a large piece of drift wood and wave action. Describe the ecological succession and the climax community in the patch for the following conditions: a. The patch is large and there are barnacles, dog whelks, mussels and sea stars present. b. Compare with the ecological succession and community composition if chitons were abundant in this environment. 2. Compare and contrast the coral reef and kelp forest ecosystems. 3. Please discuss the concept of phytoplankton blooms (beginning to end). With your discussion, please discuss nutrient cycles, light, red tides and potential effects of blooms on other organisms. 4. Please discuss the important technological advantages that have occurred in the fishing industry over the past two hundred years (don’t worry about specific dates, just order of introduction). Continue into a discussion of the need for a managed fishery and the advantages and problems inherent in that system. Use examples if you can. Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 14 of 16 Part III: Long Answers (con’t) Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 15 of 16 Part III: Long Answers (con’t) Name:__________________________________________________________ Page 16 of 16 Part III: Long Answers (con’t) I____________/40 II___________/30 III__________/30 Total_______/100
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