Home » psychopathology | NURS6635 | Walden University

psychopathology | NURS6635 | Walden University

  
  Respond to this discussion post. Do not argue. Just add points to either agree or disagree to the already made points. Do not repeat what is already said. 1 page is good. Learning materials and instructions for the discussion is below the discussion.    
  
  DISCUSSION POST.
  Biological (Genetic & Neuroscientific) Factors that Influence the Development of Psychopathology   Biological factors greatly influence the development of psychopathology. One main biological factor is the role of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are used in chemical intraneuronal communication. Neurotransmitters influence thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Another biological factor is the role of genetics. Genetic factors have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia, alcoholism, anxiety disorder, and attention deficit disorder (Nicol & Erlenmeyer-Kimling, 2010). For example, patients who have first-degree relatives that have schizophrenia are three times more likely to develop schizophrenia. Another example of how biological factors influences psychopathology is neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism. There is clear evidence that the biology of the brain has alterations in specific cellular and molecular neurodevelopmental pathway that cause this disorder (Sadock et al., 2015).  Psychological, Social, Cultural & Interpersonal Factors that Influence the Development of Psychopathology   According to Dr. Kalin, (2020), during early life development, environmental influences affect rapid brain development that can change behavioral, emotional, and cognitive abilities. For example, when individuals are exposed to adversity and trauma, they are at greater risk of developing a form of psychopathology (Kalin, 2020). Social, cultural, and interpersonal factors can influence the development of psychopathology. Studies have shown that certain psychopathology surrounds a certain gender, sexual orientation, and migration process because there is an increase in vulnerability and are often exposed to higher psychological distress (Moleiro, 2018). For example, when individuals face socio-economic adversities such as poverty, they have low life satisfaction leading to the onset of psychopathology. Another social or interpersonal influence that aids in the development of psychopathology is negative peer interactions. Bullying and harassment from peers increase an individual’s risk of drug use, behavioral and mental health problems.  Conclusion   In conclusion, the development of psychopathology is a product of complex neurobiological processes that are influenced by a wide variety of biological factors, physical and social environmental factors, and psychological factors. From brain development to sleep and nutrition, all factors of an individual’s life can change the way an individual thinks, feels, and behaves. As a nurse practitioner, it’s important to understand how all these factors shape an individual’s development so that treatment can be individually tailored.       References  Kalin, N. H. (2020). Early-life environmental factors impacting the development of  psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19111181  Moleiro, C. (2018). Culture and psychopathology: new perspectives on research, practice, and  clinical training in a globalized world. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00366  Nicol, S. E., & Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. (2010). Genetic factors in psychopathology. Handbook  of Prevention, 21–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-5044-6_2  Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (11th  ed.). Wolters Kluwer
 
  Week 1:   History and Theories of Psychopathology  The history of the diagnosis of mental disorders is fraught with examples of how cultural norms and prejudices interfere with and warp a diagnosis. The result is that normal behavior and orientations have been pathologized as an illness or disease. An example of this would be the story of Alan Turing, the famous British computer scientist of the 20th century, who was instrumental in inventing modern computers and deciphering German code in World War II. He was convicted in 1952 in England of gross indecency for being gay. Turing was forced by the courts to undergo 12 months of hormone therapy and could no longer work for the British government. At the time, homosexuality was pathologized as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and was criminalized in most Western countries. It was not until 1973 that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) finally removed homosexuality from the DSM.  Historically, the process of rendering a diagnosis has been used to pathologize those who fell outside what was considered the cultural norm of human behavior. This process often marginalized diagnosed populations and prevented individuals from receiving appropriate care. It is of utmost importance to consider cultural issues that influence how you as a clinician interpret a client’s behavior and how cultural issues influence how a client may express behavior. This week, you explore the history of psychopathology and the evolution of theoretical perspectives in the field.     Learning Objective  Students will:   Analyze historical and currently recognized biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors that inform the expression, course, and prevalence of psychopathology               Discussion: Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology  In many realms of medicine, objective diagnoses can be made: A clavicula is broken.  An infection is present. TSH levels meet the diagnostic criteria for hypothyroidism. Psychiatry, on      the other hand, deals with psychological phenomena and behaviors. Can these, too, be “defined objectively and by scientific criteria (Gergen, 1985), or are they social constructions?” (Sadock et al., 2015).      Thanks to myriad advances during recent decades, we know that psychopathology is caused by many interacting factors. Theoretical and clinical contributions to the field have come from the neural sciences, genetics, psychology, and social-cultural sciences. How do these factors impact the expression, classification, diagnosis, and prevalence of psychopathology, and why might it be important for a nurse practitioner to take a multidimensional, integrative approach?  To Prepare:  Review this week’s Learning Resources, considering the many interacting factors that contribute to the development of psychopathology.  Consider how theoretical perspective on psychopathology impacts the work of the PMHNP.   By Day 3 of Week 1  Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.   Reading:      Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (11th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.    Chapter 1, Neural Sciences     Chapter 2, Contributions of the Psychosocial Sciences    Chapter 3, Contributions of the Sociocultural Sciences    Chapter 4, Theories of Personality and Psychopathology    Chapter 31.17c, Child Psychiatry: Other Conditions: Identity Problem      Butcher, J. N., & Kendall, P. C. (2018). Introduction to childhood and adolescent psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology., Vol. 2. (pp. 3–14). American Psychological Association. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/0000065-001    Cheung, F. M., & Mak, W. W. S. (2018). Sociocultural factors in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology:    Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1. (pp. 127–147). American Psychological Association. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/0000064-006    Jackson, C. E., & Milberg, W. P. (2018). Examination of neurological and neuropsychological features in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1. (pp. 65–90). American Psychological Association. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/0000064-004    Masten, A. S., & Kalstabakken, A. W. (2018). Developmental perspectives on psychopathology in children and adolescents. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology., Vol. 2. (pp. 15–36). American Psychological Association. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/0000065-002  
 

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more